Identyfikowanie różnic w sytuacyjnie uwarunkowanych zmianach sprawności działania w grze w piłkę nożną graczy i zespołów reprezentujących mistrzowski poziom umiejętności

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Title Identyfikowanie różnic w sytuacyjnie uwarunkowanych zmianach sprawności działania w grze w piłkę nożną graczy i zespołów reprezentujących mistrzowski poziom umiejętności
Autor: Soroka, Andrzej
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11331/2226
Date: 2018
Abstract: The dynamic development of football game, especially of its technical and tactical dimen-sions as well as multi-factorial physical features of players, have led to the need to conduct studies and their analysis in order to deepen and understand occurring phenomena. The studies and their results presented in this work were aimed at better understanding of the changes taking place and indicating trends in the modern football game at the highest sports level. The purpose of the studies was to indicate trends in the monitoring and eval-uation of football game over the last decade, which were characterized as systematic changes in the efficiency of performance. The research material used for the analysis was obtained on the basis of the most modern systems analyzing players' game as well as exploration of a large number of factors including five championships: the World Cham-pionships in 2010 and 2014 and the European Championships in 2008, 2012 and 2016. The calculated game performance indicators allowed to compare the efficiency of football teams and players participating in individual tournaments. The effectiveness of winning and losing teams was determined. There was compared the efficiency of players' specific positions on the pitch. There were also indicated factors of the game which in the highest degree determined the victory in direct competition and those which were the most important when achieving good results in championships. The studies have shown that since the European Championships in 2008 the activity of shots on goal has decreased, efficiency of counterattacks, especially among side midfielders, has decreased, activity and effectiveness of duels in the air that aim at taking over the ball passed high have increased. It has been also indicated that since the European Championships in 2008 the differences in the efficiency of passing the ball between winning and losing teams, previ-ously beneficial for the winners, have decreased with a countervailing trend. Since the European Championships in 2008 the average distance a football player runs in a match has been lengthening to reach the average level of 11 000 meters in the World Champi-onships in 2014. The factors that had the greatest impact on the game efficiency of teams during the analyzed tournaments were the parameters of shots, such as: the activeness and effectiveness of shots as well as activeness of shots from the penalty area and from outside of the penalty area. Among the parameters determining the efficiency of passes were among others: the efficiency of passes that gain space being performed in the mid-dle zone, the efficiency of passes that maintain game space in the zone of gaining space and creating goal situations. The studies also showed that game effectiveness was influ-enced by defensive actions such as: the efficiency of sliding tackles, duels in the air that is the fight for taking over the ball passed high or clearances, whereas among offensive actions the efficiency of crosses gaining the game space.

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