Чеська i словацька культура в життi та науковiй спадщинi Дмитра Чижевського

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Title Чеська i словацька культура в життi та науковiй спадщинi Дмитра Чижевського
Tytuł równoległy: Czeska i słowacka kultura w życiu i dorobku naukowym Dmytra Czyżewskiego
Autor: Blashkiv, Oksana
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11331/2008
Date: 2010-12
Abstract: This monograph deals with important aspects of the intellectual heritage of Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj (1894–1977), a prominent Ukrainian Slavist, philosopher and a literary critic. The aspects under consideration represent his interest in Czech and Slovak culture, which was directly connected with his stay in Prague in the 1920s among Ukrainian and Russian emigrants and his continuing coope¬ration with Czech colleagues in the following years. The contemporary study of Chyzhevs’kyj’s legacy has been conducted by the representatives of different countries in three main directions: 1) the stu¬dy of Chyzhevs’kyj’s biography (Werner Korthaase, Wladimir Janzen, Iryna Valyavko); 2) the study of Chyzhevs’kyj’s works in the context of the history of Ukrainian and Russian emigration to the Czechoslovak Republic between the wars (Sergej Magid, Maria Magidova); 3) the study of Chyzhevs’kyj’s works on philosophy and literature. Although Oleksa Myshanych and Ivan Fizer undertook the study of some important theoretical problems articulated by Chy¬zhevs’kyj in Ukrainian and Russian research, there have been few investigations that have analyzed the historical and theoretical aspects found in his works on literature and literary criticism. It has been suggested that the least investigated works in Chyzhevskyj’s legacy are those dedicated to Czech and Slovak literature and philosophy. Their study in the context of Slavic and Comparative Studies in the first half of the twentieth century is most important, for it reveals the interdisciplinary character of the scholar’s intellectual heritage. The aim of the research thesis is to provide an introductory review of the works of Chyzhevs’kyj on Czech and Slovak culture, as well as to delineate their place in the context of European, Slavic and Comparative Studies in the first half of the twentieth century. The aim defined the tasks, which are the following: 1) a systematic review of the facts connected with the life and re¬search done by Chyzhevs’kyj on the basis of the archival repository studies in both the Czech and Slovak Republics; 2) an analysis of the shaping and development of Chyzhevs’kyj’s concepts of comparative literary studies; 3) a clarification of the unique attribute of Chyzhevs’kyj’s interest in Czech and Slovak culture and an analysis of that interest in the context of European Slavic and Comparative Studies in the first half of the twentieth century; 4) the analysis of Chyzhevs’kyj’s interpretation of Czech baroque literature in the context of his theory of Baroque as an epoch lasting outside the limits of its historic time (on the basis of Karel Hynek Mácha’s world perception reflected in his poetry); 5) a systematic review of the data connected with Chyzhevs’kyj’s study of John Amos Comenius’s legacy (the influence of Comenius’ ideas on the philosophers of the Modern Age, peculiarities of Comenius’ literary heritage, the spread of Comenius’ ideas in Eastern Europe); 6) the study of the peculiarities of Chyzhevs’kyj’s interpretation of Ľudovít Štúr’s philosophy; 7) an analysis of Chyzhevs’kyj’s interpretations of the texts of Slovak Romantics (L. Štúr, J. Kráľ, P. Z. Kellner-Hostinský). The monograph consists of three chapters. Chapter I deals with the evolution of Chyzhevs’kyj as a personality and a scholar. Chapter II and Chapter III deal respectively with Czech and Slovak cultures in Chyzhevs’kyj’s intellectual heritage. In its turn each chapter consists of two parts – theoretical and mono¬graphic. In the context of Czech culture it is the Baroque literature and John Amos Comenius’ heritage, in the context of Slovak culture it is Slovak Roman¬tic literature against the background of European Romanticism and Ľudovít Štúr’s creative legacy. Empiric and biographical data about Chyzhevs’kyj’s personal and academic relations with Czechoslovakia have been gathered in Chapter I "Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj’s Works on Czech and Slovak Culture in the Context of Slavic and Comparative Studies of the First Half of the Twentieth Century". "Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj and Czecho-Slovakia Between the Wars" (Chapter I, Part I) focuses on the scholar’s activities in the context of Ukrainian and Russian emigration societies, Czech academic circles and the Prague Linguistic Centre. The analysis of Chyzhevs’kyj’s contacts with Czech colleagues has been done on the basis of the unpublished archival materials gathered in the archives of the Czech and Slovak Republics. It has been stated that these contacts were of academic character, which encouraged Chyzhevskyj’s contribution into the Slavic Studies periodicals. "Evolution of Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj’s Ideas in the Context of the Slavic and Comparative Studies of the First Half of the Twentieth Century" (Chapter I, Part II) presents Chyzhevs’kyj’s concept of literary history ("the theory of waves", "cultural and historic epoch", "culture styles") and the objectives of the comparative study of Slavic literature in particular and Slavic Studies in general. Partial extrapolation of Chyzhevs’kyj’s philosophical methods onto the sphere of Slavic Studies has caused the shaping of a kind of synthetic approach to the study of Czech and Slovak literature. Hence, Chyzhevs’kyj’s research proves to be of great importance for the European Comparative and Slavic Stu¬dies in the twentieth century. Chapter II "Czech Literature and Culture in Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj’s Research" presents an analysis of the scholar’s works on Czech literature and on the heritage of John Amos Comenius, as well as of some aspects of Czech Baroque Literature. "John Amos Comenius’ Philosophic and Literary Heritage in Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj’s Interpretation" (Chapter II, Part I) deals with the history of Chyzhevs’kyj’s research connected with the personality and creativity of Comenius. Having found in 1934 the lost manuscript of Comenius’ "De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica", Chyzhevs’kj never left this di¬rection of his research. As a textual critic, a historian of literature and philosophy and a comparatist, Chyzhevskj conducted both an analysis of archival and bibliographic materials and personal research to prove Comenius’ important legacy. The author of the dissertation underlines that in Comenius’ legacy Chy-zhevs’kyj pointed out philosophic and literary tendencies. From the philosophic perspective Chyzhevs’kyj stressed the ideas of Comenius that influenced the next generations of philosophers from the Early Modern times till the twentieth century (universal science, universal language, and universal harmony). The theological ideas of Comenius were the focus of Chyzhevs’kyj’s investigation as well, and in the dissertation they have been analyzed in the context of pietism in Germany and Eastern Europe. Comenius’ "Labyrinth of the World and Paradise of the Heart" were analyzed by Chyzhevs’kyj from the perspective of its style and topothesia. The scholar investigated the themes of "The Labyrinth" and their sources, stressing their typological peculiarities and connections within European literature and philosophy since Antiquity. In "Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj and Slavic Literary Baroque: the Czech Context" (Chapter II, Part II) special attention has been paid to the works of Chyzhevs’kyj in which he illustrated the idea of the Baroque as an epoch which expanded traditional understandings of the limits of its chronological measures in the history of culture. The scholar utlized Hussite religious songs from the fifteenth century and the poetry of Czech Romantic poet Karel Hynek Mácha to analyze the elements of Baroque world perception. Chapter III "Slovak Spiritual History in Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj’s Interpretation" deals with the studies of the Slovak culture done by Chyzhevs’kyj. "Ľudovít Štúr as Philosopher of Life in Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj’s Works" (Chapter III, Part I) reveals the stages of Chyzhevs’kyj’s work on Štúr’s legacy, be¬ginning with the archival study of the facts of Štúr’s life and creative work (Starý a nový vek Slováků, Das Slawenthum und die Welt der Zukunft) through the publication of the monograph "Štúr’s Philosophy of Life". Special attention has been paid to such notions crucial to the understanding of Štúr’s philosophic system as "life", "kinds of life", "characteristics of life" and "spirit", as well as to the question of Štúr’s Hegelianism as presented by Chyzhevs’kyj. An attempt has also been made to follow the reception of Chyzhevs’kyj’s monograph "Štúr’s Philosophy of Life" by the Slovak literary critics and philosophers of the twentieth century. In "Dmytro Chyzhevs’kyj and Slavic Romanticism: Slovak Context" (Chapter III, Part II) the scholar’s text analysis of such Slovak Romantics as Janko Kráľ, Ľudovít Štúr, P.Z.Kellner-Hostinský is presented in the context of Chyzhevs’kyj’s concept of Slavic Romanticism. The scholar believed that the works of Kráľ, Ľudovít Štúr, and Kellner-Hostinský had a crucial influence on further development of Slovak literature, an idea confirmed by current studies in this field. Chyzhevs’kyj interpreted the works of Slovak Romantics also as a "Slavic comparatist" (Slavomír Wollman), studying their works in the context of Polish-Slovak literary relations in his articles "Mickiewicz, Štúr i Kráľ" and "Mickiewicz bei den Slowakei" in the 1950s. In Conclusion, the author presents the results of extensive research and suggests perspectives for the further development of the study of Chyzhevskj’s legacy. There three appendixes in the book: 1) Selected Correspondence of Chyzhevs’kyj with Czech Scholars (Josef Vašica, Jiři Horák, Matija Murko, Miloš Weingart, Bohumil Trnka, Ema¬nuel Rádl, František M. Bartoš, Josef Páta, Jan Mukařovský, Zdeněk Kalista, Karel Horálek, František Tichý, Václav Černý, Antonín Škarka); 2) Selected Correspondence of Chyzhevs’kyj with Slovak Scholars (Andrej Mráz, Ľudovít Novák, Josef Škultéty); 3) Slovak Reviews of the Monograph "Štúrova filosofia života" (Hrušovský Igor, Viera Horváthová, Josef Dieška, Ján Marták).

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